Pakistan’s Unending Political Polarization: Causes and Implications.

 Since its inception, Pakistan has been struggling with a myriad of issues and challenges. Some of the initial problems, which proved perennial, hindered its route to progress. The country needed an agreed constitution, which took its first 9 years. Most of its problems were not appropriately addressed, and moving forward, the country was in a worse form of political polarization. Over the years, this division has deepened, making it politically challenging to find a viable democratic setup pre-requisite to building a more unified and stable nation. This article examines the causes and consequences of Pakistan’s persistent political polarization, exploring the historical, social, and political factors contributing to this state of affairs.

Historical Roots Of Polarization:

A historical approach must be adopted to understand Pakistan’s political and social issues and challenges. 

Political Polarization

Partition Legacy:

 The 1947 partition of British India into India and Pakistan created an immediate religious and territorial divide. The scars of partition, communal violence, and migration continue to influence political and social identities today.

Role of the Military: 

Pakistan has experienced numerous military coups and periods of direct military rule. It drastically imbalanced the civil-military relationship of the country. The military’s involvement in politics has exacerbated polarization and contributed to an uneven power dynamic between civilian and military institutions.

Ethnic and Regional Diversity:

 Pakistan is a multilingual, multicultural, diverse country with various ethnic and regional identities. The central government’s struggles to accommodate these differences have fueled regionalist and ethnic-based political movements.

Social and Cultural Factors

Religious and Sectarian Differences:

 Religion plays a significant role in Pakistani society, but religious polarization is prevalent. Sectarian violence and clashes between different religious groups have added to the overall polarization.


The Pakistani education system, marked by stark disparities and varying ideological influences, has contributed to differing worldviews and political opinions among its citizens.

Media and Information Silos: 

The media landscape in Pakistan is fragmented, with many channels representing diverse political interests. This division has created echo chambers, reinforcing the polarization of public opinion.

Political Factors

Dynastic Politics:

 Pakistani politics is often characterized by dynastic politics, with many parties led by political families. This perpetuates a concentration of power and limits the diversity of political representation.

Lack of Strong Institutions: 

The country’s political institutions, such as the judiciary and election commission, have struggled to maintain their independence and authority, leading to uncertainty and mistrust. Under political dispensation, keeping the judiciary and other institutions independent of politically motivated pressure is necessary.

Ethnic and Regional Parties:

 Ethnic and regional political parties often focus on parochial interests, diverting attention from national issues and contributing to polarization.

Consequences of Political Polarization

The persistent political polarization in Pakistan has far-reaching consequences that hinder the nation’s development, stability, and progress.

Governance Challenges:

 Polarization hampers the government’s ability to make informed and effective policy decisions. In Pakistan’s case, it brings the entire system to the verge of near collapse. It often results in gridlock, where political parties prioritize their interests over national priorities.

Economic Stagnation:

 Investors and businesses are wary of unstable political environments. Because investment demands better law and order and political stability. Pakistan’s polarization deters foreign investment and economic growth, impacting the livelihoods of its citizens.

Security Concerns:

 Political polarization also has long-term implications for national security. Pakistan has been facing the menace of terrorism for the last twenty years. The absence of a unified national agenda can hinder the country’s ability to effectively respond to internal and external threats.

Political Polarization

Weakened Democratic Institutions:

 The military’s historical involvement in politics has undermined civilian institutions, limiting the development of strong democratic norms and practices.

Impaired Social Cohesion:

 The political divide has translated into social divisions, affecting social cohesion and intergroup relations. This division can lead to discrimination and mistrust among communities.

Impediments to Foreign Policy:

 Diplomatic efforts are often hampered by political discord, making it challenging to formulate and maintain consistent foreign policy strategies.

Addressing Pakistan’s Political Polarization

To address Pakistan’s persistent political polarization and its associated challenges, several measures can be taken:

Strengthening Democratic Institutions:

Since democratic institutions represent the country’s people, efforts should be made to solidify democratic institutions in their functions and dispensation. Judiary must be free of political pressure. It should deliver its independent role in strengthening the judicial system. Election commission and parliament, to ensure their independence and authority. Moreover, the parliament must lead in all nationally essential matters.

Promoting Civil Society and Media Freedom:

 Civil society organizations and independent media can be vital in promoting dialogue and bridging divides.

Economic Development:

 Fostering economic growth can help alleviate some of the tensions arising from economic disparities. Investment in education and job creation is essential.

Depoliticizing the Military

 Efforts should be made to reduce the military’s role in politics, allowing civilian authorities to assert greater control over the country’s destiny.


Pakistan’s continued political polarization is deeply embedded in its political culture. It is a highly complicated problem that continues to hinder the country’s progress and stability. To address this issue, it is crucial to understand its historical, social, and political roots. It is required to adopt a comprehensive approach to promote inclusive governance, strengthen democratic institutions, and foster unity among the country’s ethnically diverse populations. Pakistan’s future success depends on its ability to overcome the ethnic divisions. Among other things, an essential issue of the absence of a peaceful transfer of political power has also held it back from working towards a more unified, prosperous, and stable nation.