Most Effective Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Medications

If you’re a silent sufferer of type-2 diabetes but hesitating to select the best medicine for diabetes, you just stepped in the right place. In our diabetes mellitus treatment guidelines, we’re going to present some of the best diabetes mellitus type 2 medications.

Of course, consulting with your doctor is the wisest solution so far. Still, there are some ways that can save some of your bucks that you may have to spend on doctor’s appointments.

This article is one of these ways. It will guide you to some best-known and effective medications currently available for treating type-2 diabetes.

What Should You Consider Before Taking Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Medications?

Before taking any type 2 diabetes mellitus medication, it’s important to consider some factors. This will help you to determine the right medication and dosage as well. Some important considerations before taking diabetes Mellitus type-2 medications include:

Blood glucose levels

Many type-2 diabetes patients start their treatment with metformin. However, metformin may not be acceptable in all health conditions. So, if you have the risk of side effects after taking metformin, your doctor may suggest some other medications.

If you don’t see satisfactory changes in your blood glucose level after taking metformin alone, it’s wise to combine other medications or supplements to lower blood glucose levels.

Also Read about Diabetes medications that cause weight loss

Other health conditions

Your health condition has a greater influence on the effectiveness of type-2 diabetes medications. There are some specific health conditions that are identified to interrupt the actual potential of medications. These conditions include:

  • kidney disease
  • high cholesterol
  • high blood pressure
  • obesity
  • heart disease

Funding

There are some specific medicines funded with special conditions. These medicines are only available for patients who fulfill certain criteria. Medicines like empagliflozin and vildagliptin are two major funded medicines. 

Side effects

Before taking any kind of medications or supplements, you should consult with a doctor to determine whether it can lead to side effects. It will also help you to determine how that particular medication will affect your lifestyle.

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Most Effective Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Medications

Diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes medications are designed to deal with diabetes through several specific processes. In general, a preferred drug is beneficial in many health aspects. Note that, the effectiveness of each drug can vary depending on the health condition of an individual patient. 

Depending on the working process and effectiveness, these drugs are categorized into specific classes. Here we’ll discuss those classes and drugs under them. 

Metformin

Diabetes Mellitus medication Metformin is a specialized drug that works for increasing insulin sensitivity of the body cells. This is a type of biguanide drug. Apart from increasing insulin sensitivity, it decreases glucose production of the liver. 

The first FDA-approved biguanide drug (Metformin) for treating type-2 diabetes was Glucophage. Since then, it has become the first prescribed drug for treating type-2 diabetes. 

This drug has some additional health benefits as well. For instance, it is eminent for suppressing appetite that is effective for people with overweight issues. However, Metformin may not be able to reduce blood glucose levels fully on its own. 

So, it’s better to incorporate some other oral drugs or insulin while taking metformin. 

Possible side effects:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea

Sulfonylureas

Sulfonylureas are the drugs that increase insulin production by the pancreas. In older generations of Sulfonylureas, some drugs were abandoned because of the higher risk of cardiovascular issues. 

In recent Sulfonylureas, glipizide (Glucotrol), glyburide (DiaBeta), diabetes medication glimepiride, or Amaryl diabetes medication are the most popular drugs. These drugs are eminent to lower blood sugar instantly. However, they often tend to cause abnormal blood sugar reduction. 

Possible side effects:

  • Allergy (specific people who are allergic to sulfa)
  • Weight gain

Meglitinides

The working process of Meglitinides is almost similar to sulfonylurea drugs, as these drugs also promote insulin output by the pancreas. Major drugs under this class are nateglinide (Starlix) and repaglinide (Prandin). 

However, these drugs are not as long-lasting as sulfonylurea drugs. Basically, they act very shortly and reach peak effectiveness within one hour. That is why these drugs are prescribed to take three times a day.  

Possible side effects:

  • hypoglycemia
  • Weight gain

Thiazolidinediones

Thiazolidinediones drugs are most effective for increasing insulin sensitivity to lower blood glucose.  Some common Thiazolidinediones drugs include rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos). 

These medications are often avoided as a first-line diabetes medication by doctors due to side effects. Still, some Thiazolidinediones drugs are effective depending on individuals. 

Possible side effects:

  • risk of heart failure
  • bone fractures

SGLT2 inhibitors

SGLT2 inhibitors are the newest class of type-2 diabetes drugs. Drugs under this class are mainly oral drugs, and they work for blocking the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys. This way, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the blood sugar level and increase glucose excretion. 

Some of the major FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitors are Canagliflozin (Invokana) and Dapagliflozin (Farxiga). These drugs are eminent for using both as a single therapy or combining with other drugs like sulfonylurea, metformin, or pioglitazone. 

Possible side effects:

  • Vaginal yeast infection
  • Urinary tract infection

GLP-1 receptor agonists

GLP-1 is the short form of glucagon-like peptide-1. This class is an incretin hormone that works for improving coordination of insulin release. It promotes the signal of insulin secretion.

The first drug of this group was Exenatide (Byetta). The source of this drug was quite interesting, which is the saliva of the Gila monster. Scientists had observed that lizard for several months. 

Their observation had revealed that this lizard can survive without eating for a long time. The main reason behind this phenomenon is the presence of saliva. Saliva slows down the emptying process of the stomach. That is why that lizard can live without eating for a longer time. 

However, GLP-1 receptor agonists have some other drugs also. For instance, long-acting Exenatide (Bydureon), Dulaglutide (Trulicity), albiglutide (Tanzeum), and liraglutide (Victoza). 

These drugs work for slowing stomach emptying and decreasing glucose release from the liver. Thus, they regulate the distribution and absorption of nutrition. Besides, they have a secondary effect on our brain that controls hunger. Hence, these drugs are also effective in the weight loss process. 

Possible side effects:

  • Nausea
  • Pancreatitis.

Pramlintide (Symlin)

Pramlintide (Symlin) is the class of injectable anti-hyperglycemic medications that works for both type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetes. This is a naturally occurring synthetic analog of human amylin. This is a type of hormone made by the pancreas and works for controlling blood glucose right after meals. 

The effectiveness of amylin is similar to insulin, as only diabetes patients have this hormone. The major role of this hormone is obstructing blood sugar peaks, reducing blood glucose, enhancing satiety. 

Besides, it lowers mealtime insulin requirement and is potent for weight loss. Pramlintide is an additional treatment of type-2 diabetes aside from mealtime insulin therapy. This drug is most effective for the person who is unable to regulate glucose level despite taking insulin therapy. 

Possible side effects:

  • Severe hypoglycemia
  • Nausea

Supplements for Type-2 Diabetes 

Scientists have been testing many supplements to find out the better solution for treating type-2 diabetes. According to several studies, taking supplements along with other diabetes medications is more effective to maintain low blood sugar. Alongside, it reduces the actual dose of prescribed medications. 

Here are some of the most effective supplements that may help you to lower blood sugar, particularly type-2 diabetes. 

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Vitamin B7 (Biotin) is a member of B complex vitamins. It helps in fatty acid metabolism and regulates glucose output in the body. According to some research, Biotin is potent to manage diabetic conditions. 

Biotin aids our body to lower blood sugar level that resulting in improved diabetic conditions. Taking biotin on regular basis activates several enzymes of our body that regulates blood sugar. However, it has no influence on insulin or glucose. 

To ensure the highest effectiveness of biotin, it’s better to combine this supplement with chromium. Some early studies have found its potential to regulate cholesterol in the body. 

Possible side effects:

There are no possible side effects of taking biotin. However, it’s wise to maintain the proper dose. 

Berberine

There is a misconception among people about Berberine. People often consider it as a specific herb. However, it’s not a herb, rather it is the extract of roots and stems of particular plants like Philodendron and goldenseal. 

Taking Berberine supplements along with other diabetes medications is more effective in lowering blood sugar compared to taking medications alone. 

Berberine improves insulin sensitivity and promotes better up taking of sugar from the blood into muscles that result in improved sugar consumption. You can take this supplement 2-3 times a day with ordinary meals. 

Possible side effects:

  • diarrhea or gas
  • constipation

Chromium

Chromium is a crucial nutrient of our body that helps to convert carbs into sugar. Thus, it promotes better distribution of energy that insulin requires. Some clinical studies have shown its significant influence in lowering blood sugar. 

This supplement focuses on pancreatic cells of the body for improved insulin production or maintaining insulin effect. However, this supplement won’t cure type-2 diabetes at all. 

Possible side effects:

There are no known side effects of chromium. Still, you should maintain the proper dosage. 

Conclusion

We have tried to present the best diabetes mellitus type 2 medications after our endless research and analysis. These medications are recognized across the world for treating type-2 diabetes. Still, if you experience any side effects while taking type 2 diabetes treatment, consult with your doctor immediately.