In latest years, lithium-ion batteries have exceeded lead-acid batteries because the favored alternative for home sun garage systems. But still the lead acid batteries are working. Lead-acid battery technology is improving day by day by working on high performance.
It is getting tough to compare each battery type because each has different behaviour that totally relies on rate of discharge, depth of discharge, and required life cycle.
Solar Storage Batteries:
Due to high energy density and high efficiency, lithium-ion batteries are used widely and are known as the best battery type for energy storage applications. Varieties of solar storage batteries are present. Because of low cost and long lasting cycle life, LiFePO4 cells are used inside home energy storage. Moreover, these lithium batteries are used by well known manufacturers including Tesla and LG Chem.
Efficiency of Battery:
The efficiency or loss of charging and discharging during use is its battery efficiency. Round trip efficiency is also its name. Energy losses when it transfer from one form to another, as given by physics rules. In this case, the power is transferred from electric to chemical for the duration of battery charging and from chemical to electric for the duration of discharge.
In general, lead-acid battery losses are highest at 15-20% while for lithium batteries losses are lower between 2% to 8%.
Deep-cycle lead-acid performance stages from 76% to 85%. The performance of a lithium LFP 48 volt battery stages among 92% to 98%.
Another drawback of lead-acid or lead-carbon battery is their longer charge time while in comparison to lithium batteries. Depending on the intensity of discharge, it can take two to four hours. During bad weathers, charge efficiency will be low and it is not possible to fully charge battery thus reduce battery life.
On the other hand, lithium batteries can charge in 1 to 2 hours. These batteries can soak up energy at higher rates. Moreover, lithium batteries can bear partial state of charge (POS) for long time without any degradation issue. On regular basis, lead-acid batteries’ incomplete charging can greatly decrease the battery life.
The potential of a battery is measured in both amp hours (Ah) and kilowatt-hours (kWh) (kWh). The quantity of electricity used, called the depth-of-discharge or DOD, is calculated as a percent of overall battery potential.
Simply multiply the battery Ah score with the aid of using the full battery bank voltage to transform Ah to kWh. A 24V lead-acid battery financial institution made from 12 x unmarried cell (2v) 600Ah batteries, for example: 12 x 2V x 600Ah = 14,400Wh. This is then accelerated with the aid of using one thousand to get kilowatt-hours – 14.4kWh overall potential.
As a preferred rule, lithium (LFP) batteries are designed to be discharged as much as 90% general capacity (10% SOC), while conventional lead-acid (gel & AGM) batteries ought to now no longer be discharged greater than 30-40% on an each day basis, until in emergency backup situations.
Tubular gel and lead-carbon batteries are extra-long lasting than conventional gel and AGM batteries and might resist more depths of discharge, with as much as 70% to be had capacity (in backup situations).
Lead Acid Batteries Advantages:
- Time-tested technology
- Life expectancy of up to 15 years (at lower DOD)
- Simple to recycle
- There is no low SOC or low-voltage cutout.
- There is no cutout for high-temperature.
Lithium Batteries Advantages:
- Efficiency of up to 98 percent
- High energy density – small and light
- Up to 100 percent usable capacity
- PSOC (partial state of charge) is not an issue
- Warranty of up to ten years