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Asad Ijaz

Hey there, I'm Asad Ijaz Khattak, and I'm not your typical writer and blogger – I'm the voice behind the scenes at the renowned website, "" When it comes to the digital realm, I'm all about technology, networking, and cybersecurity. Picture this: I'm not just someone who writes about tech; I'm a certified expert in the field. I proudly hold the titles of Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) and Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA). So, when I talk about networking, I'm not just whistling in the dark; I know my stuff! My website is like a treasure trove of knowledge. You'll find a plethora of articles and tutorials covering a wide range of topics related to networking and cybersecurity. It's not just a website; it's a learning hub for anyone who's eager to dive into the world of bits, bytes, and secure connections. And here's a fun fact: I'm not a lone wolf in this journey. I'm a proud member and Editor of Team NetworkUstad. Together, we're on a mission to empower people with the knowledge they need to navigate the digital landscape safely and effectively. So, if you're ready to embark on a tech-savvy adventure, stick around with me, Asad Ijaz Khattak. We're going to unravel the mysteries of technology, one article at a time!"


  1. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) - Networkustad
    May 27, 2019 @ 11:05 am

    […] protocol designed to send data packets over the Internet. It is a transport layer protocol in the OSI model . It create a connection between remote computers by transporting and ensuring the delivery of […]

  2. Physical Layer - Networkustad
    May 28, 2019 @ 7:09 am

    […] Physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI Model. It provides the resources to transport the bits; that make up a data link layer frame across the […]

  3. TCP/IP Model - Networkustad
    May 28, 2019 @ 7:20 am

    […] the path of development when the OSI standard published. The TCP/IP model is not the same as the OSI model. OSI is a seven-layered standard, but TCP/IP is a four-layered standard. The OSI model has been […]

  4. Types of Physical Media - Networkustad
    May 28, 2019 @ 7:55 am

    […] model, which defines network hardware and services in terms of the functions they perform. The OSI reference model we already discussed in detail in Chapter 1, (“Network and their building blocks.”) […]

  5. What is Data-link Layer ? - Networkustad
    May 30, 2019 @ 7:32 am

    […] data-link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model handles the moving of data in and out across a physical link in a network. It performs the node to […]

  6. Media Access Control Methods - Networkustad
    May 30, 2019 @ 10:51 am

    […] or deal with collisions. Media access control methods implemented at the data-link layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. There are four main media access control methods in […]

  7. Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Addresses » Networkustad
    June 22, 2019 @ 6:25 pm

    […] or frames intended to be multicast for a designated network service. The Data link layer of the OSI model also uses a multicast […]

  8. Characteristics of IP - Connectionless, best effort and Media Independent » Networkustad
    June 22, 2019 @ 7:19 pm

    […] wireless) carrying the data and works all type of media that bring the data at lower layers of the OSI Model. Therefore, IP packets travel as electrical signals over copper cable, as optical signals over […]

  9. Comparison between TCP/IP and OSI Models » Networkustad
    June 23, 2019 @ 6:37 am

    […] model. Network access layer and Application layer of the TCP/IP models further divided In the OSI model describe discrete functions that must occur at these layers. Both models are widely used networking […]

  10. Data Encapsulation & De-encapsulation in the OSI Model » Networkustad
    June 23, 2019 @ 7:32 am

    […] the previous article, we have learned various layers of the OSI reference model. We have discussed the function of each layer and relationship with other layers as well as with […]

  11. Transport Layer (Layer 4 of the OSI Model) » Networkustad
    July 31, 2019 @ 3:10 am

    […] and delivered to the right application on the destination device. The transport layer of the OSI model accepts data from the application Layer and prepares it for network layer addressing. A sending and […]

  12. Application Layer » Networkustad
    August 7, 2019 @ 4:34 pm

    […] application layer is the topmost layer of the OSI Model. As shown in the figure below, the upper three layers of the OSI model (application, presentation, […]