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Asad Ijaz

My Name is Asad Ijaz Khattak and I am the writer and blogger, known for my website "". I have writes about various topics related to technology, networking, and cybersecurity. I am also a Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) and Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA). I have written several articles and tutorials on the website which can be used as a learning resource for people interested in networking and cybersecurity. I am the member and Editor of Proudly Team NetworkUstad


  1. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) - Networkustad
    May 27, 2019 @ 11:05 am

    […] protocol designed to send data packets over the Internet. It is a transport layer protocol in the OSI model . It create a connection between remote computers by transporting and ensuring the delivery of […]

  2. Physical Layer - Networkustad
    May 28, 2019 @ 7:09 am

    […] Physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI Model. It provides the resources to transport the bits; that make up a data link layer frame across the […]

  3. TCP/IP Model - Networkustad
    May 28, 2019 @ 7:20 am

    […] the path of development when the OSI standard published. The TCP/IP model is not the same as the OSI model. OSI is a seven-layered standard, but TCP/IP is a four-layered standard. The OSI model has been […]

  4. Types of Physical Media - Networkustad
    May 28, 2019 @ 7:55 am

    […] model, which defines network hardware and services in terms of the functions they perform. The OSI reference model we already discussed in detail in Chapter 1, (“Network and their building blocks.”) […]

  5. What is Data-link Layer ? - Networkustad
    May 30, 2019 @ 7:32 am

    […] data-link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model handles the moving of data in and out across a physical link in a network. It performs the node to […]

  6. Media Access Control Methods - Networkustad
    May 30, 2019 @ 10:51 am

    […] or deal with collisions. Media access control methods implemented at the data-link layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. There are four main media access control methods in […]

  7. Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Addresses » Networkustad
    June 22, 2019 @ 6:25 pm

    […] or frames intended to be multicast for a designated network service. The Data link layer of the OSI model also uses a multicast […]

  8. Characteristics of IP - Connectionless, best effort and Media Independent » Networkustad
    June 22, 2019 @ 7:19 pm

    […] wireless) carrying the data and works all type of media that bring the data at lower layers of the OSI Model. Therefore, IP packets travel as electrical signals over copper cable, as optical signals over […]

  9. Comparison between TCP/IP and OSI Models » Networkustad
    June 23, 2019 @ 6:37 am

    […] model. Network access layer and Application layer of the TCP/IP models further divided In the OSI model describe discrete functions that must occur at these layers. Both models are widely used networking […]

  10. Data Encapsulation & De-encapsulation in the OSI Model » Networkustad
    June 23, 2019 @ 7:32 am

    […] the previous article, we have learned various layers of the OSI reference model. We have discussed the function of each layer and relationship with other layers as well as with […]

  11. Transport Layer (Layer 4 of the OSI Model) » Networkustad
    July 31, 2019 @ 3:10 am

    […] and delivered to the right application on the destination device. The transport layer of the OSI model accepts data from the application Layer and prepares it for network layer addressing. A sending and […]

  12. Application Layer » Networkustad
    August 7, 2019 @ 4:34 pm

    […] application layer is the topmost layer of the OSI Model. As shown in the figure below, the upper three layers of the OSI model (application, presentation, […]

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