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Asad Ijaz

My Name is Asad Ijaz Khattak and I am the writer and blogger, known for my website "". I have writes about various topics related to technology, networking, and cybersecurity. I am also a Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) and Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA). I have written several articles and tutorials on the website which can be used as a learning resource for people interested in networking and cybersecurity. I am the member and Editor of Proudly Team NetworkUstad


  1. Spanning Tree Algorithm - Path Cost » Networkustad
    October 19, 2019 @ 6:29 pm

    […] is determined using the sum of the individual port costs along the path from the destination to the root bridge. Each “destination” is a switch port. The default port costs are defined from the speed of the […]


  2. 802.1D Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) Frame Format » Networkustad
    October 22, 2019 @ 2:06 am

    […] spanning tree algorithm exchange Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) to elect Root Bridge. It is a frame containing 12 different fields with different information.  The information in the […]


  3. Types of Spanning-Tree Protocols » Networkustad
    October 24, 2019 @ 2:56 pm

    […] of using only one Root Bridge, the CPU and memory requirements for CST are lower than for the other protocols. However, because […]


  4. Spanning-Tree Bridge ID configuration » Networkustad
    October 27, 2019 @ 5:24 pm

    […] configuring a specific switch as Root Bridge, the bridge ID priority value must be adjusted to make sure as lower than all the bridge priority […]


  5. PVST+ Load Balancing » Networkustad
    October 29, 2019 @ 6:07 pm

    […] configured in the network, VLAN 100 and 200. The purpose is to configure Switch-1 as the primary root bridge for VLAN 100 and the secondary root bridge for VLAN 200 and Switch-2 as the primary root bridge for […]


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